ringworm-in-rcc-calves

Ringworm and Treatment Approaches in RCC Calves

Dermatomycosis or dermatophytosis, commonly known as ringworm, is a fungal infection of keratinized tissue (skin, hair, and claws) which is caused by one of the three genera of fungi collectively called dermatophytes – Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton. It is a remarkable public and veterinary health problem reported from different parts of the world and causes great economic loss (Calderone 1989). The disease occurs more commonly in tropical than temperate climates particularly in countries having hot and humid climatic condition (Pascoe 1976).

Ringworm and Treatment Approaches in RCC Calves

The disease occurs more commonly in tropical than temperate climates particularly in countries having hot and humid climatic condition (Pascoe 1976). Trichophyton spp. have been regarded as the main fungi causing ringworm in cattle (Quinn et al. 1994).  A number of calves were simultaneously affected with this disease in the cattle farm of Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI). So, this study was undertaken to develop a suitable treatment approach for controlling the disease in the herd. A total of 20 calves of Red Chittagong Cattle (RCC) were selected for the trial. One calf had acute dermatomycosis and the rest had chronic ones. All the experimental calves were divided into five groups namely – T0, T1, T2,

So, this study was undertaken to develop a suitable treatment approach for controlling the disease in the herd. A total of 20 calves of Red Chittagong Cattle (RCC) were selected for the trial. One calf had acute dermatomycosis and the rest had chronic ones. All the experimental calves were divided into five groups namely – T0, T1, T2, T3 and T4. T0 group was kept as control and T1, T2, T3 and T4 groups were allowed for treatment. There were four calves in each group as replications.

During the trial the average age and body weight of the animals were 45 days and 25 kg respectively. The experiment was carried out during March-April/2011. The duration of the experiment was about one month. The fungal spores of Trichophyton spp., and Microsporum spp. were observed in the samples (skin scraping) under the microscope using 20% potassium hydroxide solution.

The drugs used for treatment were griseofulvin, streptomycin-penicillin, antihistaminic and vitamin AD3E in T1; ivermectin, streptomycin-penicillin, antihistaminic & vitamin AD3E in T2; topical antifungal ointment, griseofulvin, streptomycin-penicillin, antihistaminic & vitamin AD3E in T3; and topical antifungal ointment, ivermectin, streptomycin-penicillin, antihistaminic & vitamin AD3E in T4. No drug was used in T0 (control). The acute case was included under group T3, where only topical antifungal ointment and griseofulvin were used.

The topical antifungal ointment (benzoic acid 6% and salicylic acid 3%) was used twice daily. The griseofulvin (systemic antifungal) was administered @ 10 mg/kg body weight orally twice daily for 7 days. Ivermectin @ 0.2 mg/kg body weight was injected subcutaneously twice with 7 days interval.

The streptomycin-penicillin preparation @ 1 ml (penicillin G procaine-1,50,000 IU, penicillin G sodium -50,000 IU, streptomycin-0.25g)/10 kg body weight was injected intramuscularly once daily for 7 days, antihistaminic preparation was injected intramuscularly @ 1 ml (pheniramine maleate BP 22.75 mg)/20 kg body weight once daily for 7 days and vitamin AD3E @ 1 ml (A-80,000 IU, D3-40,000 IU, E-20 mg)/10 kg body weight was injected intramuscularly three times with 3 days interval. The commercial preparations used in the treatment were Dermin.

The drugs used for treatment were griseofulvin, streptomycin-penicillin, antihistaminic and vitamin AD3E in T1; ivermectin, streptomycin-penicillin, antihistaminic & vitamin AD3E in T2; topical antifungal ointment, griseofulvin, streptomycin-penicillin, antihistaminic & vitamin AD3E in T3; and topical antifungal ointment, ivermectin, streptomycin-penicillin, antihistaminic & vitamin AD3E in T4. No drug was used in T0 (control).

The acute case was included under group T3, where only topical antifungal ointment and griseofulvin were used. The topical antifungal ointment (benzoic acid 6% and salicylic acid 3%) was used twice daily. The griseofulvin (systemic antifungal) was administered @ 10 mg/kg body weight orally twice daily for 7 days. Ivermectin @ 0.2 mg/kg body weight was injected subcutaneously twice with 7 days interval.

The streptomycin-penicillin preparation @ 1 ml (penicillin G procaine-1,50,000 IU, penicillin G sodium -50,000 IU, streptomycin-0.25g)/10 kg body weight was injected intramuscularly once daily for 7 days, antihistaminic preparation was injected intramuscularly @ 1 ml (pheniramine maleate BP 22.75 mg)/20 kg body weight once daily for 7 days and vitamin AD3E @ 1 ml (A-80,000 IU, D3-40,000 IU, E-20 mg)/10 kg body weight was injected intramuscularly three times with 3 days interval. The commercial preparations used in the treatment were

The griseofulvin (systemic antifungal) was administered @ 10 mg/kg body weight orally twice daily for 7 days. Ivermectin @ 0.2 mg/kg body weight was injected subcutaneously twice with 7 days interval. The streptomycin-penicillin preparation @ 1 ml (penicillin G procaine-1,50,000 IU, penicillin G sodium -50,000 IU, streptomycin-0.25g)/10 kg body weight was injected intramuscularly once daily for 7 days, antihistaminic preparation was injected intramuscularly @ 1 ml (pheniramine maleate BP 22.75 mg)/20 kg body weight once daily for 7 days and vitamin AD3E @ 1 ml (A-80,000 IU, D3-40,000 IU, E-20 mg)/10 kg body weight was injected intramuscularly three times with 3 days interval. The commercial preparations used in the treatment were Dermin

The griseofulvin (systemic antifungal) was administered @ 10 mg/kg body weight orally twice daily for 7 days. Ivermectin @ 0.2 mg/kg body weight was injected subcutaneously twice with 7 days interval. The streptomycin-penicillin preparation @ 1 ml (penicillin G procaine-1,50,000 IU, penicillin G sodium -50,000 IU, streptomycin-0.25g)/10 kg body weight was injected intramuscularly once daily for 7 days, antihistaminic preparation was injected intramuscularly @ 1 ml (pheniramine maleate BP 22.75 mg)/20 kg body weight once daily for 7 days and vitamin AD3E @ 1 ml (A-80,000 IU, D3-40,000 IU, E-20 mg)/10 kg body weight was injected intramuscularly three times with 3 days interval. The commercial preparations used in the treatment were Dermin

The griseofulvin (systemic antifungal) was administered @ 10 mg/kg body weight orally twice daily for 7 days. Ivermectin @ 0.2 mg/kg body weight was injected subcutaneously twice with 7 days interval. The streptomycin-penicillin preparation @ 1 ml (penicillin G procaine-1,50,000 IU, penicillin G sodium -50,000 IU, streptomycin-0.25g)/10 kg body weight was injected intramuscularly once daily for 7 days, antihistaminic preparation was injected intramuscularly @ 1 ml (pheniramine maleate BP 22.75 mg)/20 kg body weight once daily for 7 days and vitamin AD3E @ 1 ml (A-80,000 IU, D3-40,000 IU, E-20 mg)/10 kg body weight was injected intramuscularly three times with 3 days interval. The commercial preparations used in the treatment were Dermin®­­ ointment for topical antifungal ointment , Grisovin® tablet for griseofulvin, Vermic® injection for ivermectin, SP- vet® injection for streptomycin-penicillin, Astavet­­® injection for antihistaminic and VITA-ADE® injection for vitamin AD3E.

 

All experimental calves were observed after 7 days to know the response of the treatment. On the basis of visual observation the result was recorded on day 14.

 

The study revealed that the drugs used in T3 cured the calves after 7 days of last drug administration, while the drugs used in other groups did not cure the calves after 7 days but cured after 14 days of last treatment. Therefore, RCC calves suffering from chronic dermatomycosis or dermatophytosis (ringworm) can be treated with topical antifungal ointment, griseofulvin tablet, streptomycin-penicillin injection, antihistaminic injection and vitamin AD3E injection as per dosages used in this experiment. If the case is acute, topical antifungal ointment and griseofulvin tablet may be recommended as treatment measures. Vitamin AD3E may or may not be used in this case.  Further study in details is necessary in the concept of the season, sex, etc.

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