C Reactive Protein

C Reactive Protein Increase and Normal Disease – Mnemonic

C Reactive Protein Increase and Normal Disease – Mnemonic C–reactive protein (CRP) is an annular (ring-shaped), pentameric protein found in blood plasma, the levels of which rise in response to inflammation (i.e., C–reactive protein is an acute-phase protein of hepatic origin that increases following interleukin-6 secretion from macrophages and T cells). C Reactive Protein is not raised in Please Try to remember the mnemonics –

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Pathological Changes in Osteoarthritis

Pathological Changes in Osteoarthritis Remodeling of bone contour Fibrillation and focal loss of hyaline cartilage Marginal Osteophytes (ossification of new fibro-cartilage) Subchondral sclerosis Cysts Secondary Bursitis Capsular Thickening Osteochondral Body Synovial Hyperplasia Secondary enthesopathy What is enthesopathy? In medicine, an enthesopathy refers to a disorder involving the attachment of a tendon or ligament to a bone. This site of attachment is known as the entheses. If the

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Regulators of Bone Re-modelling

Regulators of Bone Re-modelling Table of Davidson 25.2 (Page 1062) Factor | Bone resorption |Bone formation Parathyroid hormone (PTH) ↑ ↑ Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL)↑ ↔ Osteoprotegerin (OPG) ↓ ↔ Sclerostin (SOST) ↔ ↓ Interleukin-1 (IL-1) ↑ ↓ Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) ↑ ↓ Thyroid hormone ↑ ↑ Glucocorticoids ↑ ↓↓ Oestrogen/testosterone ↓ ↑ Mechanical loading ↓ ↑ This are

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