Regulators-Bone

Regulators of Bone Re-modelling

Regulators of Bone Re-modelling Table of Davidson 25.2 (Page 1062) Factor | Bone resorption |Bone formation Parathyroid hormone (PTH) ↑ ↑ Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL)↑ ↔ Osteoprotegerin (OPG) ↓ ↔ Sclerostin (SOST) ↔ ↓ Interleukin-1 (IL-1) ↑ ↓ Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) ↑ ↓ Thyroid hormone ↑ ↑ Glucocorticoids ↑ ↓↓ Oestrogen/testosterone ↓ ↑ Mechanical loading ↓ ↑ This are

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respiratory burst

What is Respiratory Burst?

Respiratory Burst When Neutrophils engulf bacteria they exhibit a rapid increase in oxygen consumption known as respiratory burst. This phenomenon reflects the rapid utilization of oxygen and production from it of large amount of reactive derivatives, such as O2, H2O2, and OCl. It is called Respiratory Burst. Respiratory burst From Wikipedia To combat infections, immune cells use NADPH oxidase to reduce O2 to oxygen free

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Adson's Sign

What is Adson’s Sign? Significance of Adson’s Sign

Adson’s Sign Adson’s sign is the loss of the radial pulse in arm by rotating head to the ipsilateral side with extended neck following deep inspiration. It is used as a sign of thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS). Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Nerve Root Affected: C8 / T1 Structures Causing Constriction in Thoracic Outlet Syndrom 1. Scalenus Anticus Syndrome 2. Cervical Rib Syndrome 3. Costoclavicular Syndrome 4.

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main d'accoucheur

What is main d’accoucheur?

Waht is main d’accoucheur? main d’accoucheur is a French word which means “hand of the obstetrician“. Children are more liable to develop tetany than adults and present with a characteristic triad of carpo-pedal spasm, stridor and convulsions, although one or more of these may be found independently of the others. In carpopedal spasm, the hands adopt a characteristic position with flexion of the metacarpophalangeal joints

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Part of Filtration Barrier

Followings are Part of Filtration Barrier

Question: Followings are Part of Filtration Barrier a) Endothelial Cells b) Glomerular Basement Membrane c) Bowman’s Capsule d) Renal Capsule e) Mesangial Cells Answer hint: When a substance has passed through the glomerular capillary endothelial cells, Glomerular basement membrane and podocytes, then it enters the lumen of the tubules and it is known as glomerular filtrate. Podocytes are sometimes considered as a visceral layer of

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Nephrology Preparation

Regarding Glomerulus

Question: Regarding Glomerulus a) is a small tuft of capillaries b) contains podocytes c) covered with diaphragm d) small fenestrae of endothelial cell e) contains mesangial cells Answer hint: Glomerulus is a small tuft of capillaries. Glomerular epithelial cells podocytes put out the long foot process which interdigitate with those of adjacent epithelial cells. Glomerular capillary endothelial cells contain pores. These pores are called fenestrae. They are

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Nephrology Preparation

Regarding Erythropoietin

Question: Regarding Erythropoietin a) Released from Mesangial cells b) Released from Interstitial Peritubular cells c) is a glycoprotein d) released from macula densa e) Released from JG cells Answer hint: Erythropoietin is produced by interstitial peritubular cells in response to hypoxia. It is also produced in perisinusoidal cells in the liver. It is a glycoprotein. Erythropoietin is released fro 1) Kidney (85%) 2) Liver (15%) 3) Spleen

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UMNL paralysis

Hard sign of UMNL include

a)      Hypertonia b)      Superficial reflex lost c)       Brisk knee jerk d)      Babinski’s sign positive Upper motor neuron lesion Davidson 22 page 1162 Inspection Normal (may be wasting in chronic lesions) Tone Increased with clonus Pattern of weakness Preferentially affects extensors in arms, flexors in leg Hemiparesis, paraparesis or tetraparesis Deep tendon reflexes Increased Plantar response Extensor (Babinski sign) So the most probable answer is a)

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Nephrology Preparation

Regarding Renin

Question: Regarding Renin a) Acts as a enzyme b) Secreted from Juxtaglomerular apparatus c) Secreted in response to reduced efferent arteriolar pressure d) Reduced Na+ content in fluid of distal convoluted tubule causes secretion e) Plasma renin activity measured in hypertension Answer hint: Renin referred to as a hormone although it has no peripheral receptors and rather has an enzymatic activity with which it hydrolyzes angiotensinogen to angiotensin

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Breast Cancer Steroid

Steroid hormone is used in the treatment of

Steroid hormone is used in the treatment of Multiple Myeloma Breast Cancer CML Multiple Sclerosis Cervical carcinoma Answer: B) Breast Cancer Treatment of Multiple Myeloma – Davidson 1047 (22nd Edition) If patients are asymptomatic with no evidence of end organ damage (e.g. to kidneys, bone marrow or bone), treatment may not be required. High fluid intake to treat renal impairment and hypercalcaemia Analgesia for bone

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